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How I Build JavaScript Apps In 2021

| 7 minutes read

It's now roughly seven or eight years that I'm building dynamic front ends for the web. From digital art wallets to games (1, 2) and synthesizers, I've seen it all. And since my process of creation has dramatically changed over the years, today, I'd like to share how I'm developing web apps in 2021.

I avoid build processes.

I still remember the debates with colleagues about using babel a few years ago. Within the front end development world, transpiling had just become a thing, so we ended up babelifying our builds to use ES6. Our argument back then was that one day, we would be able to push our application's directory structure on a web server and since all browsers would then support the augmented ES6 features, our app would just work! Without a build process. WOW! That must have been around 2015. When I look at the source code of these old applications now, our technical visions didn't end up becoming reality.

Now, I try to keep my build process to a minimum. When I need to write a demo app, I particularly like using <script type="text/babel">. I love preact's "no build tools route." too. When I have to set up an actual app, I avoid webpack and rollup. I mainly get frustrated about the myriad ways of configuring them. Some minor thing always ends up being broken, which leads to hours of debugging foreign code. And that's frustrating. Using preact's no build route, finally something like the above is possible:

<script type="module">
// NOTE: You literally don't need a build process with preact.
import { h, Component, render } from '';
const app = h('h1', null, 'Hello World!');
render(app, document.body);

When having to use a build tool, I gravitate towards parcel or microbundle as they come preconfigured. And in particular, parcel is excellent, as it's merely using an HTML file as its entry point. To me, that's promising as it assumes a proper directory structure and properly connected files such that maybe one day I can push my app to the web without that build step.

I avoid transpiling.

For the same reasons as pointed out above, I also try to avoid transpiling. It's not because I don't like ESNext features, but more because I want to minimize the risk of getting stuck with the transpiler. Hence, I try to avoid using babel. I also don't use Typescript. To me, JavaScript is productive enough. Additionally, for react-style projects, no transpilers mean I stopped using JSX. Instead, I found an excellent library called htm that uses JavaScript's template strings. It has a similar syntax to JSX, but it's not breaking ECMAScript standards and hence needs no transpliation.

I avoid the new and shiny.

I even avoid changing the way I work if I don't feel comfortable or inclined. For example, I never switched to react hooks. The lifecycle methods that I initially know from iOS Objective-C programming are - in my opinion - a beautiful metaphor for writing front end components. And neither did I have any issues with my sites' performance. I would make the switch if I started to have problems. But I don't. The same goes for up and coming frameworks. Angular V2? Svelte? Cool, but why relearn a framework when I'm already productive with the one I use?

I test EvErYtHiNg.

When I started front-end development, testing was complicated. Only a few front end developer colleagues tested their apps properly. I ended up doing a lot of testing by hand. It was frustrating and unproductive. But testing front ends has improved dramatically over the years. Not only have the tools been significantly enhanced.

We, as front-end developers, have now also figured out how to correctly write front end tests. Finally, we're able to distinguish between functional code and presentational code. For functional code, we now write unit tests. For presentational code, we use snapshot-based testing and integration tests. I'm pleased about tools like cypress that is great for integration tests. I also like ava for unit tests.

I optimize for performance and quality.

I used to be eager about building extensively functional software: the more features, the better. I'm not anymore. Instead, I try to develop software that works well for my users. I strive for quality. So I try to measure my build's size. I take proper care about delivering my application, meaning I turn on compression and caching. I care about optimizing my static assets like pictures. And I like to check my apps by using tools like PageSpeed Insights or lighthouse.

I use my own work

From experience, I learned that I hardly ever get stuck on a algorithmic problem. On the contrary, I get motivated to learn something new and excel in the process. However, I caught my self often spending many hours on debugging other people's code. Mainly when it's third-party libraries that I included via npm. Once, I thought that using npm packages was a JavaScript developer's superpower. Now, I know that it can also be their curse.

Instead of collecting heaps of third-party code, I now prefer following Peter Hintjens' principles for writing good code. I "use my own work." Meaning, I dare to write seemingly complex code myself. I still won't roll my own crypto or write a date library, but I dare to implement parts of a protocol or build an algorithm. It's not to say that I ditch every npm package and go npm-keto-diet. No, instead, I take a more mindful approach towards dependencies and only include them when I truly need them.

I try to do that by leaving my technical vision at the doorstep of my office, so that I can now focus on solving the problems at hand. I try to stop worrying about eventualities far in the future as I view that as speculation. In cases I have past experiences, I use it to form my decision. For unchartered teritory, I move carefully, step by step.

I use open source to my advantage.

I'm building websites since I'm a teenager. And had I open-sourced and maintained a few pieces of code that I need frequently, I'd be more productive now. Unfortunately, I was short-sighted. Surprisingly, I didn't think about still using JavaScript at 29 years of age 😂

I stopped framing open source mainly around certain virtues like free speech, fairness or certain politics. They're still important virtues for me, but I learned that I could use open source also for building a personal toolset.

Extracting a library from a codebase allows me to think about it from a user's perspective. It means I'm able to think about a piece of code's interfaces emphatically. Additionally, there's positive peer pressure. I'm not going to release shit to the world. When my project is public, it's going to have a proper README and some docs. And it's going to be tested. Since everybody can see it, I might as well create something I can be proud of.

Hence, contributing to open source, for me, is about building high-quality software. Being anxious about not being able to monetize this particular piece of code has become less of a concern. sindresohrus inspired me to treat open source packages like my personal toolbox.


And that's my incomplete list of principles. I'm sure there's more than just these. Anyway, I still find some of these points quite controversial. I'm sure they won't work for everyone as all our contexts differ. But working solo as a freelancer, I've found that these principles contribute to me being content about what I'm doing. Hence, I was eager to share them.

I'm curious to hear other's thoughts and see if they've taken similar paths. Please reach out! Also, don't forget to subscribe to my newsletter!

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